Thus Easley undertook additional NASA-sponsored training, including a course in Houston, Texas. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Families are nothing other than the idolatry of duty. She worked as a substitute teacher in Jefferson County, Alabama, and helped blacks prepare for the literacy tests that they were required to pass in order to register to vote. Since she didn't want to teach, Easley intended to become a nurse. Annie Easley was born to Samuel Bird Easley and Mary Melvina Hoover in Birmingham, Alabama. As part of the Jim Crow laws that maintained racial inequality, African Americans were required to pass a literacy test and pay a poll tax in order to vote, which was outlawed in 1964 in the Twenty-fourth Amendment. However in high school she began thinking about becoming a pharmacist. It doesn’t matter what you … WOZNIAK, STEPHEN GARY Annie's mother told her that she could be anything she would have to work at it. And if that wasn’t notable enough, Easley also did all of this as one of the first few African-Americans in her field. Salary: Median—$62,890 per year 87-88. She was also responsible for monitoring electricity use at Lewis. Before civil rights laws of the 1960s, Easley helped train African Americans to take the voting test in … Annie J. Easley (April 23, 1933 – June 25, 2011) was an African-American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist. "Easley, Annie J. Although NASA generally paid for work-related employee education, Easley was always turned down for aid and so she paid for her own courses. (October 16, 2020). Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. With massive cuts in the NASA space program, Easley began working on energy problems. Contemporary Black Biography. Easley studied pharmacy for two years at Xavier University, a black Catholic school in New Orleans, Louisiana. Easley was the daughter of Bud and Willie Sims McCrory of Birmingham. https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/easley-annie-j, "Easley, Annie J. She developed and implemented computer programs for determining solar wind and for solving problems of energy monitoring and conversion, including technologies for wind power and solar energy. Annie J. Easley (April 23, 1933 – June 25, 2011) was an American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist. Born Annie J. Easley on April 23, 1933, in Birmingham, AL; married 1954 (divorced). Black Contributors to Science and Energy Technology, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Public Affairs, 1979, p. 19. She encouraged Annie to get a good education. [10] Despite her long career and numerous contributions to research, she was cut out of NASA's promotional photos. (With others) Performance and Operational Economics Estimates for a Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle Cogeneration Powerplant, NASA Technical Memo 82729, March, 1982. [8], In 1955, she read a story in a local newspaper about twin sisters who worked for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) as "computers". [13] Her energy assignments included studies to determine the life use of storage batteries, such as those used in electric utility vehicles. Annie J. Easley (April 23, 1933 – June 25, 2011) was an African-American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist. She was raised by her mother, a great encourager, and excelled in school. In the 1970s she started taking two, then three classes, while working full-time. Annie J. Easley died on June 25, 2011, at the age 78. I ain't afraid to shoot him either. Following the energy crisis of the late 1970s Easley studied the economic advantages of co-generating power plants that obtained byproducts from coal and steam. Easley served as Lewis's Equal Employment Opportunity officer, investigating complaints of discrimination. Warren, Wini, Black Women Scientists in the United States, Indiana University Press, 1999, pp. Annie Easley was born to Samuel Bird Easley and Mary Melvina Hoover in Birmingham, Alabama. Known as NASA's "workhorse in space," it was used to launch communications, weather, and military satellites and space vehicles, including the 1997 Cassini spacecraft to Saturn. [10] She continued her education while working for the agency, and in 1977, obtained a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics from Cleveland State University. Employment Outlook: Fair Education: Xavier University, New Orleans, LA, 1952-54; Cleveland State University, BS, mathematics, 1977. After Easley's husband was discharged from the military, the couple moved to Cleveland, Ohio, to be near his family. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. To pay her tuition, Ms. Easley had to continue to work full time while she went to school part time. Easley told Johnson: "There was a real pride in being able to have talent, resources, and knowing that we could get in here and really, really do something great." But, Ms. Easley was an African American, who faced racial discrimination throughout her lifetime. See more Business timelines. She also worked on the Centaur, a high-energy booster rocket with a mixed liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen propulsion system. She worked for the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). She had to pay for her own schooling, even though NASA paid tuition for others. "Easley, Annie J. NACA Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA Lewis Research Center, John H. Glenn Research Center), Cleveland, OH, Computer Services Division, 1955-1979, Energy Directorate, 1979-80s, Engineering Directorate, Launch Vehicles Group, 1980s-1989, mathematician and computer engineer; Century 21 Beyond 2000 Realty Co., Parma Heights, OH, agent, 1990s-. First launched successfully in 1963, over the next 30 years it went through further development and was considered one of the Lewis Research Center's greatest achievements. Annie J. Easley (April 23, 1933 – June 25, 2011) was an American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist. She worked for the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). She also took real-estate courses and became a real-estate agent. The human computers-almost all female-used tables and large mechanical calculators to perform their work. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Easley hoped to continue her education. For me, sitting still is harder than any kind of work. Worked at NACA ... 10 Historical Events that shaped Public Education. computer sciences, programming languages, COBOL. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Explore Annie Easley's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. Easley sometimes traveled to Cape Canaveral, Florida, to observe the launches. I was not intentionally trying to be a pioneer." Annie's mother told her that she could be anything she wanted but she would have to work at it. For part of that period she worked a six-day flexible schedule. See more » Cassini–Huygens. At NASA she took upon herself to be an Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) counselor. [10], Annie Easley was interviewed in Cleveland on August 21, 2001 by Sandra Johnson. (John Adam) Presper, Jr. The technical genius behind the Apple I and II microcomputers that launched Apple Computer, Inc., Stephen…, Rod Adkins 1958– (JOHN ADAM) PRESPER, JR. After studying at New Orleans' Xavier University and pursuing a career as a pharmacist, she earned a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Cleveland State University. "Annie J. Easley," NASA Oral History, www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/NASA_HQ/Herstory/EasleyAJ/AJE_8-21-01.pdf (February 28, 2007). Johnson: Today is August 21, 2001. Born on April 23, 1933, in Birmingham, Alabama, Annie J. Easley was the daughter of Samuel Bird Easley and Mary Melvina Hoover. Her computer applications have been used to identify energy conversion systems that offer the improvement over commercially available technologies. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Early life and education. She worked for the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). She lived there until she left for college at Xavier University in New Orleans, Louisiana. Encyclopedia.com. Revitalized Ailing UNIX Division She was a leading member of the team which … Audience Size: 250 Number of Performances Per Day: 2 Length of Performance: 45 minutes Setup Time: 1 hour Teardown Time: 1 hour This performance supports the following NYS Learning Standards for the Arts: A firm believer in education and in her mother’s advice “You can be anything you want to be, but you have to work at it,” Easley was very dedicated in her outreach efforts at NASA. She lived there until she left for college at Xavier University in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites. Annie J. Easley was a computer scientist, mathematician, and a rocket scientist who worked for the Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA). [1] Before the Civil Rights Movement, educational and career opportunities for African-American children were very limited. Unfortunately, the local university had ended its pharmacy program a short time before and no nearby alternative existed. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. I'd much rather be out doing something actively, like on the golf course or doing other things. . She did volunteer work, took up snowboarding, and served as president of the Greater Cleveland Ski Council. [14] The interview is stored in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center Oral History Program. Annie J. Easley was born in Birmingham, Alabama on April 23, 1933. During her 34-year career, she worked not only on technologies that led to hybrid vehicles, but also on software that enabled great strides in spaceflight and exploration. At the time Easley was one of only four blacks among the agency's 2,500 employees. An admiral who never went to sea, Hopper owed her success…, Education and Training: College However, the date of retrieval is often important. In 1949 two women earned the distinction of being the first African-America…, Wozniak, Stephen Gary When a photo of Easley and her coworkers was enlarged for display at a laboratory open house, her face was cut out of the picture. See more Art and Culture timelines. NACA became NASA. We’re a national leader in DEI (diversity, equity, and inclusion) training. She worked for the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Easley's social life was centered at Lewis. Annie Jean Easley (born April 23, 1933 in Birmingham; died June 25, 2011 in Cleveland, Ohio) is a mathematician and computer scientist who helped develop power technology analysis software for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) . She had to take a test and pay money just to vote. Taking up skiing in her 40s, she founded and served as the first president of the NASA Lewis Ski Club. Annie Easley, however, was all three. She was a leading member of the team which developed software … It's not like this fascinating thing I play with. In Uncategorized. She worked for the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. One day in 1955 Easley read a newspaper story about twin sisters who worked as computers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), NASA's predecessor at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland. During the late 1960s and 1970s Easley worked on nuclear-powered rocket systems. : It was the dawn of the space age and the United States was competing with the Soviet Union. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. This interview with Annie Easley is being conducted as part of the NASA Headquarters History Office “Herstory” Project. African-American children were educated separately from white children, and their schools were often inferior to white schools. Easley started off studying pharmacy. Education: Xavier University, New Orleans, LA, 1952-54; Cleveland State University, BS, mathematics, 1977. [6], Easley's work with the Centaur project helped lay the technological foundations for future space shuttle launches and launches of communication, military and weather satellites. . Annie Easley was born to Samuel Bird Easley and Mary Melvina Hoover in Birmingham, Alabama. [4], In 1954, she returned to Birmingham. From Wiz Kid to PC Manager She belonged to the Speakers Bureau and gave talks on the technological spin-offs of NASA's research. She often represented NASA at school and college career days. See more Biography timelines. Annie J. Easley spent her 34-year career working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Her legacy continues to inspire countless students to make an impact in the STEM field. Born in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1933, Easley was raised by a single mother who instilled the value of education at a very early age. Sammmons, Vivian Ovelton, Blacks in Science and Medicine, Hemisphere, 1990. [7], Easley was also a budding athlete who founded and subsequently became the first President of the NASA Ski Club and participated in other local ski clubs. Computer programmers write the step-by-step instructions tha…, East African Religions: Ethiopian Religions, East African Religions: Northeast Bantu Religions, East Arkansas Community College: Distance Learning Programs, East Arkansas Community College: Narrative Description, East Arkansas Community College: Tabular Data, www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/NASA_HQ/Herstory/EasleyAJ/AJE_8-21-01.pdf, https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/easley-annie-j. "African American Inventor," Southern California Edison, www.sce.com/Sc3/Templates/SupportAndervicesCategory.aspx?NRMODE=Published& NRNODEGUID=%7bC877DAF4-A8B7-492E-86EE-BFC27EA1DEA1%7d&NRORIGINALURL=%2fsc3%2fInventors%2fInventorsd-h& NRCACHEHINT=Guest (February 28, 2007). Office—Century 21 Beyond 2000 Realty Co., 6370 York Rd., Parma Heights, OH 44130-3051. She retired in 1989. African American children were educated separately from white children, and their schools were most often inferior to white schools. Annie Easley at NASA Glenn Research Center. She was a leading member of the team which developed software … Annie J. Easley (April 23, 1933 – June 25, 2011) was an American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist. In 1955, Easley began her career at NASA, then the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), as a human computer performing complex mathematical calculations. See more Uncategorized timelines. Contemporary Black Biography. She encouraged Annie to get a good education. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Sources (With A. F. Kascak) Effect of Turbulent Mixing on Average Fuel Temperatures in a Gas-Core Nuclear Rocket Engine, NASA Technical Note D-4882, November, 1968. ." Her 34-year career included developing and implementing computer code that analyzed alternative power technologies, supported Centaur, determined solar, wind and energy projects, identified energy conversion systems and alternative systems to solve energy problems. "Annie J. Easley," World of Computer Science, Gale Group, 2002. Among the developers from the pc code for NASA’s Centaur rocket stage, she was one of the primary African-American pc and rocket researchers. IBM Executive [3][10] Her work contributed to the 1997 flight to Saturn of the Cassini probe, the launcher of which had the Centaur as its upper stage. Annie Jean Easley was born in 1933 and raised by her single mother in Birmingham, Alabama. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. [9] She applied for a job the next day, and was hired two weeks later - one of four African Americans of about 2500 employees. ECKERT, J. [6], Easley's outreach for minorities did not end with her volunteer work at college career days. Apart from all of her degrees and diplomas, and as part of continuous education, Annie Easley worked through specialization courses offered by NASA. Outside of Lewis Easley tutored school children and high-school dropouts who were returning to school. [5], Shortly thereafter, she moved to Cleveland to be closer to her husband's family,[6] with the intention of continuing her studies. (With A. F. Kascak) Bleed Cycle Propellant Pumping in a Gas-Core Nuclear Rocket Engine System, NASA Technical Memo X-2517, March 1972. Discover the real story, facts, and details of Annie Easley. She remembered the test giver looking at her application and saying only, "You went to Xavier University. Before the Civil Rights Movement, educational and career opportunities for African-American children were very limited. Annie Easley Background Information Education Annie's mother always encouraged her to get a good education, and that's what Annie did. Subsequently, she helped other African-Americans prepare for the test. One of her studies involved determining the life of storage batteries used in electric vehicles. Annie Easley Timeline created by Kourtney Stege. From the fifth grade through high school, Annie attended Holy Family High School, and was valedictorian of her graduating class. After their studies at New Orleans’ Xavier … New!! We will help you create a culture where everyone can reach their full potential. Easley traveled to colleges and universities, recruiting engineers for the lab. d. 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