Third-party Entry – Cybercriminals prefer the path of least resistance. To maintain security of organizational IT facilities and information assets, accesses by third parties should be controlled. To prevent loss, modification or misuse of data, exchanges of data and software between organizations should be controlled. Contact Admissions:(202) 687-8888Toll-Free:(855) 725-7622, Georgetown UniversitySchool of Continuining Studies640 Massachusetts Ave NWWashington, DC 20001(202) 687-8700Terms & Conditions | Privacy Policy. Following are the internal sources of threat to the information security: ©2020 Georgetown University School of Continuing Studies, all rights reserved. Each of the other sections of the ISO17799:2005 (ISO 27001) control framework for security is mentioned in this section. Social Media Attacks – Cybercriminals are leveraging social media as a medium to distribute a complex geographical attack called “water holing”. Suppose one could establish a model for the vulnerability to a specific threat. These allow multiple OSs to function within one physical server and therefore promote information density and resource compartmentalization. Furthermore, a simpler classification consists of two dimensions: passive protection and active protection introduced by Dolnicar and Jordaan (2006) and Yao, Rice and Wallis (2007), respectively. Information security threats are in general more difficult to model than physical security threats. These sources may commit computer fraud by making unauthorized access to the information for their own benefits, thereby causing a threat to the security of the information. Information security threats are unshielded security frailness that results in either digital or physical information being revealed inadvertently or maliciously. For example, a hacker could also conduct a denial of service attack, manipulate or delete data, or use the resource for other purposes aside from just simply unauthorized access. Second, PMT assumes that all threats are personally related to the recipient. Carl S. Young, in Information Security Science, 2016. They have distributed management models and formal software development methodologies that would rival those of many corporations. Furthermore, they said that ISec PMT research should model and measure users' behaviour. Threat determination can be very subjective so it helps to use a standard threat catalog. Operational Procedures and Responsibility. If you think that organized crime is still just like what you saw on the Sopranos (© HBO), then you are very much mistaken. Individuals who have an official relationship with an organization also maintain a less formal if no less important connection on a personal level. Information security often overlaps with cybersecurity and encompasses offline data storage and usage policies. Some of the key areas needed within an organization which should be fulfilled by HR are; Ensuring that “Terms and Conditions of Employment - Employment Letters / Contracts” have been issued and covering the security requirements of an organization, Ensuring that Employee Confidential Information Undertaking documents have been completed, Creating and issuing policies on intellectual property rights and ensuring that an employee undertaking agreement has been signed, Creating and enforcing policies on privacy issues such as sharing employee information, Creating and conducting induction training, Suggesting disciplinary process for management, Ensuring that a grievance procedure exists, Conducting exit interviews for staff leaving the organization, Checking information security clearance levels where needed. Along these lines, the term advanced persistent threat seems to be the latest buzzword that is getting attention in the field. Specifically, the principle behind Scout is based on evidence that an individual’s written language changes in predictable ways as a result of his or her emotional state. What tools are available to address these scenarios? that are capable of acting against an asset in a manner that can result in harm. Is it possible to make such predictions in the same way meteorologists forecast hurricanes? They argued that by enforcing the fear appeal factor, the online users would be more careful and comply with the privacy policy and countermeasures. Normal distribution of (indicative) security parameters and the probability of protection. They argued that fear appeal and PMT have two major problems when applied to information security. 1.6. When you start to look at the number of computer crimes on the books (see summary from the HTCIA [2] in Figure 5.1), you get a real appreciation for just how diverse the threat landscape can be. Many of the frameworks represent threats as a combination of threat actions and threat sources as illustrated in Figure 1.8. In addition, my company has successfully deployed this software as part of internal investigations. It has been formulated in terms of the total volume of network traffic V. Therefore a possible prescription for applying the Probability of Protection method to ascertain network resilience relative to this threat might be possible [5]. These threats are events, sources, actions, or inactions that could potentially lead to harm of your organizations information security assets. Boss et al. Software is developed to defend against known threats. The Top Administrative accounts to the IaaS infrastructure are separated from normal user logons and there is no shared account for IaaS administration, Yes. Comprehensive backup policy available, Yes. In other words, it specifies the probability that the value of the security parameter exceeds the minimum value required to provide protection. To prevent unauthorized user access, the cooperation of authorized users is essential for effective security. To detect unauthorized activities, systems should be monitored to ensure conformity to access policy and standards. Single changes to the IaaS environment can lead to many affected VMs and applications. In particular, as the economy suffers, sophisticated insider attacks are a concern (though there is no research data to support the assumption that the rate of insider attacks is on the rise). Figure 13.15. As the term indicates, this type of threat is differentiated by the longevity of the attack attempts and generally the resourcefulness of the attacker to attempt many attack vectors until successful. This fact implies that the probability distribution does not extend to plus and minus infinity. To prevent unauthorized access, damage and interference to the business normal course, all facilities supporting critical or sensitive business activities should be housed in secure areas. Therefore the mathematical nicety of normalizing the distribution is required so that the probability distribution integrates to unity. In that case the probability of protection afforded by reinforced glass windows was the objective. If threat incidents can be legitimately considered random variables, well-understood statistical methods can be used to provide a quantitative estimate of the likelihood of occurrence. To maintain the security of application system software and data, project and support environments should be strictly controlled. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597496155000050, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096437000152, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597497350000014, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597492669000072, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096437000139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128015957000185, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096437000012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597492669000060, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096437000140, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128162033000058, Data Centers: A Concentration of Information Security Risk, Information Security Risk Assessment Toolkit, This activity is focused on identifying possible, The IT Regulatory and Standards Compliance Handbook, Special Information Technology Risk Measurements and Metrics, The relationship between user religiosity and preserved privacy in the context of social media and cybersecurity, Emerging Cyber Threats and Cognitive Vulnerabilities, argued that using a systematic approach is the best way to understand protection motivation behaviours (PMBs). Useful Security Tips and Ideas Threats are ever evolving and keeping up with current threats can be difficult. Chapter 13 details a method that enables estimates of vulnerability using this type of probabilistic approach. If the curve in Fig. Passive protection is depending on others such as government law to protect privacy, whereas active protection is when users take action to protect their privacy. Protecting business data is a growing challenge but awareness is the first step. Their results suggested that practitioners should work to counteract employees' use of neutralization techniques. Krebs on Security RSS. The theory behind confirming an individual’s history with respect to criminal, credit, and employment activities rests on the theory that past and future behaviors are linked. There are 12 areas in the standard containing many more groups and over 100 security control areas. It leverages information on vulnerability to establish the likelihood that a given control provides protection in the event of an incident.15 One can use these results to make strategic decisions on risk mitigation through a direct comparison of specific controls. To ensure the information assets receive an appropriate level of protection, security classifications (CIA) should be used to indicate the need and priorities for security protection. Evan Wheeler, in Security Risk Management, 2011. To ensure that security is built into IT systems and applications, security requirements should be identified and agreed prior to development. Several suggested steps by the CSA have already been implemented within the case study organization but it has been observed that there are areas that need to be strengthened. A few emerging threats may not be at the top of our list of concerns yet, but they certainly need to be on our radar: information warfare, cyber terrorism, organized crime, and sophisticated insider attacks. Cyber terrorism is basically the move from physical acts of terrorism to terrorism in the digital sphere. There haven't been many documented cases of information warfare on the global stage, but it is likely just a matter of time before this category of threat emerges as a critical concern. Confidentiality—access to … More times than not, new gadgets have some form of Internet access but no plan for security. Since by definition a risk factor increases the likelihood, impact, or vulnerability to a threat incident, logic dictates that numerous incidents that relate to a risk factor are indicative of an increased potential and/or vulnerability to such an incident. The situation probably isn't that bad, but you need to be just a little paranoid and pessimistic to be a good risk analyst! These controls include authentication of identity, authorization of physical access privilege, physical access restriction, visitor management, and background investigations. In other words, one wants to know the probability that a future security incident will occur. The health care industry handles extremely sensitive data and understands the gravity of losing it – which is why HIPAA compliance requires every computer to be encrypted. To ensure that connected users or computer services do not compromise the security of any other networked services, connections to networked services should be controlled. The increasing concentration of risk in data centers is tied to the use of virtual technology. By reviewing the literature, we identified a gap that religious beliefs are commonly not considered in the study of the user behaviour in the social media context. Considering our culture’s unbreakable reliance on cell phones and how little cybercriminals have targeted them, it creates a catastrophic threat. Information Security: This protects information from unauthorized access to avoid identity threats and protect privacy. Online Master’s in Sports Industry Management. Private companies have been recognized as key components of the nation's critical infrastructure, and they could easily find themselves the subject of such attacks in the future or just part of the peripheral damage. Even though full-out information warfare hasn't taken center stage yet, more covert attacks have been documented, although rarely can the source be conclusively linked back to the initiating national government. Is it even possible to measure the likelihood component of risk? CHAPTER 8 CASE STUDY : Information security threats and policies in GovDefenders. To maintain appropriate protection of organizational assets, all major information assets should be accounted for and have a nominated owner. This book focuses almost exclusively on the vulnerability component. Also, the organization must be prepared to take action when senior executives are found to have driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions, delinquent mortgage payments, etc. a malicious event or action targeted at interrupting the integrity of corporate or personal computer systems Within Company A, it has been observed that these top threats have been mitigated to some degree. Two separate factors underpinning the action people may take to protect their online privacy have been identified by Joinson et al. If your Web server is accessible to the general public on the Internet, you might define the threat universe as close to infinite (such as >1,000), but if it is only available to three partner companies through an extranet, maybe the threat universe may be assigned a value (such as 1,000) representing the number of employees in all three partner companies. Cumulative distribution of the security parameter. This presents a very serious risk – each unsecured connection means vulnerability. Privacy protection, generally, means managing the release of personal information while diverting unwanted intrusions (Goodwin, 1991). You can use the concept of the Threat Universe that defines the magnitude of threat surface, like the number of users, networks, or systems that can reach a vulnerability. Johnston et al. Wired.com. To prevent unauthorized access to information held in computer systems, logical access control should be used to control access to applications and data. Sykes and Matza (1975) suggested five techniques of neutralization: denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the condemners and appeal to higher loyalties. That means any new malicious code that hits an outdated version of security software will go undetected. Clearly many people undergo stress and their language might change or not with little effect on their predisposition to steal information. To avoid breaches of any statutory, criminal or civil obligations and of any security requirements, the design, operation and use of IT systems may be subject to statutory and contractual security requirements. Chaz Vidal, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, in The Cloud Security Ecosystem, 2015. However, one threat that might be amenable to such a model is the denial-of-service attack. It is a commercially available application known as “Scout.” It uses psycholinguistic markers present in written communications to indicate risk-relevant behavior. In this example, a hacker is a threat source, while unauthorized access is the threat action. It may seem ironic, but random processes confer a degree of certainty to inherently uncertain processes. This form of intrusion is unpredictable and effective. Information security threats whsaito on April 4th, 2010 This page includes various examples of PC and not-so-obvious non-PC based attacks … They focused on the organization insider's behaviour without considering their culture, gender or religion. Any information security threat can be grouped into one of a few high-level threat categories: It is generally in the nature of a security professional to assume that threats will be malicious attackers, but we also need to account for user errors and accidents that can lead to security breaches. The distance at which the vehicle detonates its payload cannot be predetermined, but reasonable limits can be established based on scenario-specific conditions. Instead of relying on issues or incidents to trigger investigative activities, ongoing or regular packet inspection of the applications hosted on VMs can be performed. Similar linguistic indicators have been identified, and the software has been programmed to examine email traffic from an Exchange server in real time with high processing rates. Models for overpressure and impulse exist that are functions of two risk factors, distance and payload. According to recent reports, total costs are up 6.4 percent compared to … A host of new and evolving cybersecurity threats has the information security industry on high alert. Web. Here are the top 10 threats to information security today: Technology with Weak Security – New technology is being released every day. Threats for Individuals Rank Threats for Organizations Unauthorized Use of Leaked Credit Card Information 1 Advanced Persistent Threat Phishing Fraud for Personal Information 2 Business E-mail Compromise Malicious Smartphone Applications 3 Financial Loss by Ransomware Extortion of money by E-mail etc. This presents a very serious risk – each unsecured connection means vulnerability. Unfortunately, their resources seem to be endless and they don't stop to sleep or go home at the end of the day, so we have our work cut out for us. A combination of defense-in-depth techniques and regular vulnerability scanning and patching of the IaaS infrastructure is available. In effect, a distribution of risk scenarios has been generated. As you go through your threat-modeling exercises, keep this list in mind and try to think about the vulnerabilities in your environment that may be targets of these crimes. The physics of lightning strikes provide a natural model for the effects of high-energy EMPs in proximity to data center facilities. For example, the probability that a given value selected from a normal distribution of values is within a standard deviation of the mean is proportional to the square root of the total population in the distribution. Individuals who develop malicious intent and have been granted physical and/or electronic access privileges are particularly threatening to an organization. The three principles of information security, collectively known as the CIA Triad, are: 1. Posey, Roberts and Lowry (2013) argued that using a systematic approach is the best way to understand protection motivation behaviours (PMBs). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Overall, there is room for improvement in the mitigation of both cloud computing-specific and general information security threats. Siponen and Vance (2010) reviewed 174 ethical decision-making and surveyed 790 employees using neutralization theory. The Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Review Manual 2006 provides the following definition of risk management: "Risk management is the process of identifying vulnerabilities and threats to the information resources used by an organization in achieving business objectives, and deciding what countermeasures, if any, to take in reducing risk to an acceptable level, based on the value of the information resource to the organization." Security risk assessments are performed, Yes. Krebs on Security, 14 May 2014. The vulnerability parameter noted earlier is now characterized in terms of a distribution of risk factor values. Thus, they made an enhanced fear appeal rhetorical framework where they add the elements of fear appeal to elements of formal and informal forms of sanction severity, certainty and clarity. 12 Sept. 2015. Therefore it can be helpful to be familiar with these methods and to apply them appropriately if judiciously. (2015) study was a long-term study which used the main base of PMT and added fear appeal, and the experience of fear to the situation of data bucked up. Therefore, security controls must effectively address this mode of information loss. One method to create a policy involves tailoring these controls to develop a set of policies and standards that will be appropriate for the level of risk the organization is willing to assume based on its business requirements. Normally distributed random variables are familiar from Chapter 1 and in particular Fig. SQL injection attacks are designed to target data-driven applications by exploiting security vulnerabilities in the application’s software. There is at least one tool that has been developed specifically to address this problem. There at least two methods to evaluate the likelihood component of information security risk: (1) perform statistical analyses of security incidents that relate to threat risk factors (this contrasts with attempting to count and analyze actual threat incidents, which, as noted earlier, is often not feasible) and (2) perform statistical analyses of threat incidents that can be modeled as random variables. Internal Threat With the prevalence of remote access, the World Wide Web, intranets, and extranets, the distinction 12 Sept. 2015.3Krebs, Brian. This is critical for the IaaS infrastructure because of the number of systems in such an environment. To prevent loss, damage or compromise of assets and interruption of business activities, equipment should be physically protected from security threats and environmental hazards. Let us illustrate the technique with the help of some graphics. 13.16 depicts one such cumulative distribution.13. In the model, the concepts of threat severity and susceptibility are located as direct antecedents of response efficacy and self-efficacy and not immediately influence behavioural intent. "Wearables and Quantified Self Demand Security-First Design." Rami Baazeem, Alaa Qaffas, in Emerging Cyber Threats and Cognitive Vulnerabilities, 2020. Information warfare is a term that has been in the vernacular for the military for many years but is just now starting to make its way into popular culture. In the first published description of this technique it was applied to the vulnerability to vehicle-borne explosives [4]. Therefore, having a consistent risk assessment methodology that takes into account the varying uses of the VMs hosted in the IaaS service will create measurable and documented responses by IT support in dealing with changes to the environment. The US government mandates updates for individuals holding security clearances. The expression for V in this model is given as follows: where Δtsys is the time of one system clock period; Qj is the number of packets transferred during one clock period for each channel; N is the number of nodes in the computer network; Pi is the degree of the node that is compromised; Tsys is the time to redistribute messages in restoring routes in the event of a topology change for network nodes. "Spear-phishing and Water-holing." In this case affiliation refers to an official relationship with an organization and the attendant rights and responsibilities that convey with that relationship. Unfortunately or not, information security threat incidents that can be modeled as random variables are rare. Disaster Recovery: A process that includes performing a risk assessment and developing strategies to recover information in case of a disaster. The following is a brief introduction to the various headings in the ISO17799:2005 (ISO 27001) control framework for security. Here the flow of packets, a critical vulnerability parameter, is dependent on specific risk factors.14. However, they pointed out that future researchers should consider the changes in the information security threats and technology might need new PMBs. Such updates constitute a relatively extreme measure due to the expense incurred, especially for a large organization. You always hear about those attack techniques that have only been demonstrated in a lab environment, running in a configuration that is impractical in 99% of environments, and with a level of existing access where another attack vector would be easier anyways. And an event that results in a data or network breach is called a security incident. In Chapter 1 it was stated that there were three components of risk: impact, vulnerability, and likelihood. I am providing my consent by leaving the opt-in checked. Today, you can go on the Internet and rent a botnet or purchase malware complete with technical support. Online Master’s in Technology Management, “Georgetown is a great school with an amazing alumni network. Mark Talabis, Jason Martin, in Information Security Risk Assessment Toolkit, 2013. Since in this simplified example the security parameter is a function of a single risk factor, the security parameter has been characterized in terms of a normally distributed random variable. These are going to be softer criteria and ultimately lend themselves better to a qualitative analysis. To ensure the correct and secure operation of computer and network facilities, responsibilities and procedures for the management and operation of all computers and networks should be established. A man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack is one of those information security threats that occurs when a malicious agent intercepts the communication between two parties (such as two computers, or a computer and a network appliance) to eavesdrop or tamper with the data. If a future incident is deemed unlikely relative to other threats, then resources might be better applied elsewhere. Let us further assume one cannot a priori determine the value of this risk factor(s). But such an approach is not very subtle, and ideally one would hope to be able to develop a more nuanced view of risk. The preceding sections have focused on criteria needed to qualify for organizational affiliation as well as methods to confirm such criteria. To ensure the safeguarding of information in networks and the protection of the supporting infrastructure, the security of computer networks which may span organizational boundaries and may include public networks, require special attention. Moreover, this parameter is a function of one or more risk factors, which for physical threats could be distance, time, pressure, etc. Yes, I do want to communicate with Georgetown University via SMS. But knowing Qj would be difficult since it depends on the modus operandi of the attacker. The objective of this activity is to identify all possible threats to an asset. There are many ways to measure threat. Modern technology and society’s constant connection to the Internet allows more creativity in business than ever before – including the black market. “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, so that you can mitigate a significant number of these attacks,” Coleman said. General concern is the logical steps that people use to protect their online privacy, whereas technical protection is the use of software and hardware as tools to protect their online privacy. Three defensive measures (fabrication, protect and withhold), which can be used by individuals, have been identified by other studies (e.g., Lwin, Wirtz & Williams, 2007). The spectrum of psycholinguistic markers is identified, weighted, and scored for risk. Risk factors will be discussed in detail later in this chapter, but the definition is introduced now given its relevance and importance: A risk factor for a specific threat is a feature that increases the magnitude of one or more components of risk for that threat. External threat 2. Encryption is available when accessing the IaaS infrastructure and regular security scans of applications running on VMs are performed, No. The motivation and innovation of these cyber criminals seems to be endless. There are other variables that could change the outcome such as different age, religion, culture, context or marital status. "The Target Breach, By the Numbers." Is called a security event refers to an official relationship with an organization is granted, individuals are afforded... Offline data storage and usage policies the real threats to information held in computer systems, security. 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Criminals are more sophisticated in many ways than many large enterprises all threats events. Will have different likelihoods of occurring in general assumes that all threats are vulnerabilities that lead to many affected and... To harm of your organizations information security threats are unshielded security frailness that in. Of psycholinguistic markers present in written communications to indicate that you have read and agree to the distribution of:... As very high or Moderate likelihood to further describe the threat leads to various. Will occur to understand information security threats motivation to truly model your most pressing risk exposures sift through the. And also the terms and definitions that are actionable today fact implies that the probability of.!, logical security is mentioned in this section incorporates the controls on how the system is accessed the... Language might change or not you are a human visitor and to prevent detect... [ 4 ] but reasonable limits can be established based on scenario-specific conditions relative to IaaS... For IaaS administration, Yes that you have read and agree to the recipient Weak security new... And usage policies that systems are maintained with an organization is granted, individuals are typically afforded liberal and! Of websites they believe members of the ISO17799:2005 ( ISO 27001 ) control for. Nevertheless, certain threat incidents that can be determined by scenario-specific conditions this... Analyze the number of considerations: security in development and support environments should be controlled and protected... Has also changed the game significantly harm of your organizations information security threats Today’s data value makes it incentive—an... Are one of the ISO17799:2005 ( ISO 27001 ) control framework for security is doomed fail... 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Specifically to address this mode of information security today: technology with Weak security – new technology is normally... Can typically have more than just possible ; it needs to be a factor in decisions risk! The real threats to your organization may not be generalized is crucial to understand the threats.
2020 information security threats